# Georg Simon Ohm

## Childhood and early years

Georg Simon Ohm was born into a Protestant family, Johann Wolfgang Ohm and Maria Elisabeth Beck. His father was a plumber and his mother was the daughter of a tailor. The parents did not have an academic education, but this did not prevent the father from self-education. Johann, based on the knowledge he received, independently set about educating his own children. George had a younger brother, Martin, who later became a famous mathematician, and a sister, Elizabeth Barbara. George, along with his brother Martin, by their efforts reached such heights in mathematics, physics, chemistry and philosophy that there was no longer any need for an academic education for boys. However, at the age of 11, Georg enters the Erlangen Gymnasium, where he will study until the age of fifteen. But this stage of learning was not to the boy's liking, consisting, in his own words, only in the development of mechanical memory and interpretation of texts. The level of education of the Ohm brothers was so high that Carl Christian von Langsdorf, a professor at the University of Erlangen, compared the boys with the Bernoulli family.

In 1805 Georg Ohm entered the University of Erlagen. Instead of focusing on his studies, he devotes all his time to extracurricular activities. Johann, who noticed that his son was wasting precious years and missing the opportunity to receive a decent education, sent his son to Switzerland in 1806. There, in the town of Gottstadt in the Nidau district, Georg becomes a school mathematics teacher. In 1809, Karl Christian von Langsdorff left his post at the University of Erlangen and moved to the University of Heidelberg. Om also wanted to follow him, but he, having dissuaded the future scientist, advised instead to take up the study of the works of Euler, Laplace and Lacroix. In March 1809, Om leaves his teaching post and moves to Neuchâtel, where he gives private lessons. He devotes his free time to independent study of mathematics.

## Teaching activity

Georg Ohm achieved such heights in his private teaching practice that he was able to prepare for the defense of his doctoral degree on his own. On October 25, 1811, at the University of Erlangen, Om received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Immediately after that, he becomes a lecturer at the university department of mathematics. But he will stay there for only three months, and then, realizing the absence of any prospect, he will leave the university. Om lived in extreme poverty, and the meager salary of a lecturer could not improve his plight. In 1813, responding to the offer of the Bavarian authorities, Om became a teacher of mathematics and physics in Bamberg. But, being dissatisfied with this position, George, in order to at least somehow prove himself, starts writing a textbook for the initial geometry course. In 1816 the school was closed,

The following year, in September 1817, Ohm was offered the post of teacher of mathematics and physics at the Jesuit Gymnasium in Cologne. It was impossible to miss such a chance, since this gymnasium was not only better than all the educational institutions in which he taught before, but also had a well-equipped laboratory. Throughout his teaching career, Om never abandoned his self-education, studying the works of French mathematicians: Lagrange, Legendre, Laplace, Biot and Poisson. Later, Ohm will get acquainted with the work of Fourier and Fresnel. And at the same time, having learned about Oersted's theoretical substantiation of the phenomenon of electromagnetism in 1820, George begins to make his own experiments in the school physics laboratory. He does this solely to raise his own level of knowledge. Realizes Om and that if he wants to get a job, which will be really interesting, he will have to work on research materials. After all, only relying on something, he could show himself to the world and achieve what he wanted.

## Ohm's research

In 1825, Ohm presents an article to the scientific community in which he establishes that the electromagnetic force in a conductor decreases as the length of this conductor increases. The article is based solely on evidence obtained empirically during our own experiments. Two more articles will appear this year. In one of them, the scientist gives a mathematical justification for conductivity in the circuit of an electric circuit, based on the Fourier theory of thermal conductivity. The second article was of extreme importance, since in it Ohm gave an explanation of the results of experiments carried out by other scientists with galvanic current. This very article was the forerunner of what today we call "Ohm's law", published the very next year. In 1827 Om publishes his well-known work "Galvanic circuits, mathematical justification", in which he gives a detailed explanation of the theory of electrical circuits. The book is also valuable in that, instead of proceeding directly to the object of study, Ohm first gives a mathematical confirmation of the theory, which is necessary for further understanding of the subject. This became a very important point, since even the most prominent German physicists needed such an introduction, because this book was that rare case in those days when the approach to physics was directly physical, and not mathematical. According to Ohm's theory, interactions in an electrical circuit occur between "equally charged particles." And, finally, this work clearly illustrated the differences between Ohm's scientific approach and the works of Fourier and Navier. in order to proceed directly to the object of study, Ohm first gives a mathematical confirmation of the theory, which is necessary for further understanding of the subject. This became a very important point, since even the most prominent German physicists needed such an introduction, because this book was that rare case in those days when the approach to physics was directly physical, and not mathematical. According to Ohm's theory, interactions in an electrical circuit occur between "equally charged particles." And, finally, this work clearly illustrated the differences between Ohm's scientific approach and the works of Fourier and Navier. in order to proceed directly to the object of study, Ohm first gives a mathematical confirmation of the theory, which is necessary for further understanding of the subject. This became a very important point, since even the most prominent German physicists needed such an introduction, because this book was that rare case in those days when the approach to physics was directly physical, and not mathematical. According to Ohm's theory, interactions in an electrical circuit occur between "equally charged particles." And, finally, this work clearly illustrated the differences between Ohm's scientific approach and the works of Fourier and Navier. after all, this book was that rare case in those days when the approach to physics was directly physical, and not mathematical. According to Ohm's theory, interactions in an electrical circuit occur between "equally charged particles." And, finally, this work clearly illustrated the differences between Ohm's scientific approach and the works of Fourier and Navier. after all, this book was that rare case in those days when the approach to physics was directly physical, and not mathematical. According to Ohm's theory, interactions in an electrical circuit occur between "equally charged particles." And, finally, this work clearly illustrated the differences between Ohm's scientific approach and the works of Fourier and Navier.

## Later years

In 1826, the Cologne Jesuit Gymnasium gave Ohm leave with half of his salary to continue his scientific research, but, in September 1827, the scientist was forced to resume his teaching duties. During the whole year spent in Berlin, he sincerely believed that his scientific publication would help him get a worthy place in some famous university. However, when this did not happen, he reluctantly returns to his former place of work. But the worst thing in the whole history was that, despite the importance of his work, the scientific world received it more than coolly. Insulted, Om decides to move to Berlin. And in March 1828, he officially leaves his post at the Cologne Jesuit Gymnasium and takes a temporary job as a mathematics teacher in various schools in Berlin. In 1833 the scientist accepts an offer to take the post of professor at Nuremberg. But, even having received the coveted position, Om remains dissatisfied. The persistent and hard work of the scientist was finally rewarded in 1842, when he received the Copley medal of the British Royal Society. The very next year he was elected a foreign member of the society. In 1845 Om became a full member of the Bavarian Academy. Four years later, he holds the position of curator of the Physics Museum at the Bavarian Academy in Munich and lectures at the University of Munich. Only in 1852 did Om receive the position he had been striving for all his life: he was appointed head of the department of physics at the University of Munich. when he receives the British Royal Society's Copley Medal. The very next year he was elected a foreign member of the society. In 1845 Om became a full member of the Bavarian Academy. Four years later, he holds the position of curator of the Physics Museum at the Bavarian Academy in Munich and lectures at the University of Munich. Only in 1852 did Om receive the position he had been striving for all his life: he was appointed head of the department of physics at the University of Munich. when he receives the British Royal Society's Copley Medal. The very next year he was elected a foreign member of the society. In 1845 Om became a full member of the Bavarian Academy. Four years later, he holds the position of curator of the Physics Museum at the Bavarian Academy in Munich and lectures at the University of Munich. Only in 1852 did Om receive the position he had been striving for all his life: he was appointed head of the department of physics at the University of Munich.

## Death and legacy

George Ohm's heart stopped in Munich in 1854. He was buried in the Old South Cemetery in Munich. Little is known about the cause of his death. The name of this scientist entered the terminology of electricity in the name "Ohm's law." In addition, the unit of measurement of resistance in the International System of Units (SI), denoted by the Greek letter "Ω", bears his name.

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