Albert Einstein (1879-1955) is a great theoretical physicist who founded modern physics. Known for his humanitarian causes, he was also a flamboyant public figure. Einstein's biography is full of interesting events; was a brave and strong person.
Childhood and youth
Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879 in Ulm. He received his secondary education at a city Catholic school.
In September 1895 he arrived in Zurich to enter the Polytechnic. Having received an "excellent" in mathematics, he failed in French and botany. On the advice of the director of the Polytechnic, he entered the cantonal school of Aarau.
During his studies, he studied Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. In October 1896 he became a student at the Polytechnic. Here he made friends with the mathematician M. Grossman.
Start of activity
In 1901, Einstein's first paper, "Consequences of the Theory of Capillarity", was published. At this time, the future great scientist was in great need. Therefore, thanks to the “patronage” of M. Grossman, he was admitted to the staff of the Federal Bern Office for Patenting Inventions. There he worked from 1902 to 1909.
In 1904 he began to collaborate with the journal "Annals of Physics". His duties included providing summaries of recent texts on thermodynamics.
Einstein's most famous discoveries include the Special Theory of Relativity. It was published in 1905. Works on the general theory of relativity were published from 1915 to 1916.
In 1907, the quantum theory of heat capacity was published. In 1912, it was refined by P. Debye, M. Born, and T. Karman.
The content of Albert Einstein's short biography is very rich. In 1909 he received a professorship at the University of Zurich. In 1911 he headed the department of physics at the German University in Prague.
In 1912, the great scientist returned to Zurich and began to teach at the same Polytechnic, where he had once studied himself. In 1913, on the recommendation of V. G. Nernst and his friend Planck, he headed the Berlin Physical Research Institute. He was also enrolled in the teaching staff of the University of Berlin.
Receiving the Nobel Prize
Einstein was repeatedly nominated for the Nobel Prize in Physics. The first nomination for the theory of relativity took place in 1910, on the initiative of W. Ostwald.
But the Nobel Committee was suspicious of such a "revolutionary" theory. Einstein's experimental evidence was deemed insufficient.
Einstein received the Nobel in Physics for the “safe” theory of the photoelectric effect in 1921. At this time, the brilliant physicist was away. Therefore, the German Ambassador to Sweden R. Nadolny received the prize for it.
Illness and death
In 1955, Einstein was often and seriously ill. He passed away on April 18, 1955. The cause of death was an aortic aneurysm. Before his death, he asked his relatives not to arrange a magnificent funeral for him and not to disclose the place of his burial.
- Until the age of 12 he was very religious. But after reading popular science literature, I came to the conclusion that the church and the state deceive people, and “fairy tales” are written in the Bible. After that, the future scientist ceased to recognize authorities.
- Einstein was a pacifist. He actively fought against Nazism. In one of his last works, he said that humanity must do everything to prevent a nuclear war.
- Einstein sympathized with the USSR and Lenin in particular. But he considered terror and repression unacceptable methods.
- In 1952, he received an offer to become the prime minister of Israel and refused, noting that he lacked experience to lead the country.